How to explore Iceland through the eyes of a geologist: Part 1 – A Land of Ice and Fire

Intro: Iceland is a land of ice and fire. Not only is it one of the most breathtaking places in the world to visit, but it is also one of the most unique geological sites to study. I recently co-organized and participated in a field trip to Iceland and Sweden as part of our university’s Society of Economic Geologist Student Chapter (check out the video here!). In this multi-part series I will give a quick summary and self-guide on how to get the most out of a visit to Iceland by seeing the amazing country though the eyes of geologist in order to help you understand and appreciate just how (geologically) unique Iceland is! On our route we traveled clockwise around the island, and cut through the middle. Thus, the multi-part series is broken as follows.

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Areas outlined in my 3-part blog post series “How to explore Iceland through the eyes of a geologist”

  • Part 1: A Land of Ice and Fire*

    (Intro to Iceland, Reykjavík, the Golden Circle, Snæfellsnes Peninsula)

  • Part 2: Volcanic Landscapes of the North

    (Mývatn, Dimmuborgir, Krafla, Námafjall, and Askja)

  • Part 3: Glaciers and Volcanoes of the South

    (Nornahraun 2014/15 lava field, Central Highlands, Landmannaluagar, Laki, Vík)

*Disclaimer; Yes I am a Game of Thrones fan, so the there may be  some references to this within the post series, as they filmed a large portion of the show in Iceland.

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Ice stalagmites of the Raufarhólshellir lava tube, Iceland

Part 1: A Land of Ice and Fire

Brief geological setting of Iceland

The reason that Iceland is so unique is because it is centered on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which is an active spreading rift of two large continental plates; the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate. As the tectonic plates move apart, magma rises up resulting in basaltic volcanism. The oldest rocks are 16 million year old (Ma), but most of rocks are less than 3 Ma (Moorbath et al., 1968).

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Iceland is located on the active spreading rift called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that separates the North American and Eurasian Plate (right image = volcanolovers.net)

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General geology map of Iceland showing the main geologic subdivisions and volcanic zones (fault structures). RR – Reykjanes Ridge; RVB – Reykjanes Volcanic Belt; WVZ – West Volcanic Zone; MIB – Mid Iceland Belt; EVZ – East Volcanic Zone; NVZ – North Volcanic Zone; TFZ – Tjörnes Fracture Zone; KR – Kolbeinsey Ridge; ÖVB – Öræfi Volcanic Belt; SVB – Snæfellsnes Volcanic Belt. See Day 10 for sandur deposit information (modified after Thordarson and Larsen, 2007)

From Reykjavík to the Golden Circle

The capital city of Iceland is Reykjavík, and from there the most accessible and popular destination is a tour of the Golden Circle. On the Golden Circle route is the impressive Gulfoss (foss = waterfall) and the geothermal field containing Geysir and Strokkur. This is actually where the word geyser comes from!

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Gulfoss, along the Golden Circle – Iceland

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Gulfoss, along the Golden Circle – Iceland

The water in the geothermal fields is alkaline, and the hot spring eruptions are driven by heat from a magma body ~ 2 to 3 km beneath the surface (Waltham, 2000). The hydrostatic pressure (i.e., pressure from the overlying water column) causes the water to boil at temperature over 100°C at depth, where it is converted to steam. The decreasing pressure with proximity to the surface results in flash production of steam from the superheated water which drives the explosive eruption every ~ 10 minutes!

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Strokkur geyser eruption, on the Golden Circle – Iceland

Þingvellir

Next along the Golden Circle is Þingvellir National Park. This is arguably the most famous geological place in Iceland, as it is the northeast-elongated graben that represents the Mid-Atlantic ridge. It is the only above-water expression of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, i.e., the rift that is pulling apart Iceland to this day! This area has been extensively studied and provides exceptionally clear evidence for continental drift and plate tectonics. It is also makes as neat photo as here you can “stand on” part of North America and Europe.

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Þingvellir rift valley, on the Golden Circle – Iceland

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Standing on the “rift” of the plates at Þingvellir rift valley, on the Golden Circle – Iceland

The Snæfellsnes Peninsula

The Snæfellsnes Peninsula is the western section of what is known as the Snæfellsnes Volcanic Zone. This is an intriguing area of island, as it is west-striking zone of intraplate alkalic volcanism that is off-rift to the main north-striking central volcanic axial rift system (Sigurðsson, 1970). On our trip we were joined by the Icelandic volcanologist Haraldur Sigurðsson (head of the Volcano Museum in Stykkishólmur which is definitely worth a visit). There are many interesting geological features to see, so I will just highlight several prominent ones we visited as we drove from Stykkishólmur counterclockwise toward the western end of the Peninsula.

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Snæfellsjökull stratovolcano on the Snæfellsnes Peninsula – Iceland

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Geological profile of Mt. Kirkjufells

Heading west from Stykkishólmur, a famous (and well photographed) mountain is Kirkjufell mountain. Differing from the volcanoes, this mountain is actually intermixed with glacial and interglacial-stage sedimentary rocks full of fossils, as well as layers of lava (Thordarson and Höskuldsson, 2002; Denk et al., 2011).

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Kirkjufell mountain on Snæfellsnes Peninsula – Iceland

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Kirkjufell mountain on Snæfellsnes Peninsula – Iceland

At the western edge of the Snæfellsnes Peninsula resides Snæfellsjökull. Snæfellsjökull is a stratovolcano located on the western tip of the peninsula; an infamous volcano featured in Jules Vernes’ Journey to the Centre of the Earth. This stratovol­cano is 1446 km high and capped by the Snæfellsjökull gla­cier. It has produced both felsic and mafic volcanics. Products of the volcano shape the landscape on the western end of the Snæfellsnes Peninsula. The volcano has had several large eruptions that dispersed rhyolitic tephra over parts of the Snæfellsnes Peninsula, and well as smaller basaltic flows from fissures related to parasitic vents at the foot of the volcano (Kokfelt et al., 2009).

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Snæfellsjökull stratovolcano on the Snæfellsnes Peninsula – Iceland

Lastly, a visit near the Djúpalónssandur is necessary to see some “magical” and bizarre rock formations.

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Bizzare rock formations at Djúpalónssandur on Snæfellsnes Peninsula – Iceland

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Benmorite lava of Djúpalónssandur on Snæfellsnes Peninsula – Iceland

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Classification for alkaline and sub-alkaline igneous rocks (image source: Imperial College Rock Library)

The lavas here are a great example of the unique alkali lavas that compose the Snæfellsnes Peninsula. Alkaline rocks have an excess amount of alkali content (i.e., Na2O and K2O) over silica (SiO2). They are rarer than their sub-alkaline counterparts, which  are the dominate lavas that make up the rest of Iceland, and most other igneous rocks in the world. The rock types seem at Djúpalónssandur and Hellnar are mugearite and benmoreite. Due to their higher silica content, beautiful flow banding can be seen in the grey lava. The dark (black) rocks represented parts of the lava that cooled very fast and are glassy, and the red lava represents oxidized lava that interacted with water.

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Spectacular flow banding of mugearite and benmoreite rock at Hellnar, Snæfellsnes Peninsula – Iceland

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Mugearite and benmoreite rock at Hellnar, Snæfellsnes Peninsula – Iceland

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Spectacular flow banding of mugearite and benmoreite rock at Hellnar, Snæfellsnes Peninsula – Iceland

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Spectacular seacliff exposure of mugearite and benmoreite rock at Hellnar, Snæfellsnes Peninsula – Iceland

Final thoughts: From the moment you land in Iceland you can sense something is very special about this place. It is nice to be able to understand a bit more about the dramatic geological processes that shaped such a spectacular land. Because most people fly into Reykjavík, a tour along the Golden Circle is one of the easily accessible things to do, and definitely a good place to start your adventures in Iceland. The Snæfellsnes Peninsular is not too far away either (~2 hour drive north) and offers a beautiful landscape in the shadow of the mysterious Snæfellsjökull stratovolcano, and a landscape shaped by some odd geological processes compared to the rest of Iceland.

Next up in my “how to explore Iceland through the eyes of a geologist” series will be Part 2 – Volcanic Landscapes of the North. Here resides the youngest rocks in Iceland (i.e., < 1 year old), as well as a terrain that look truly out of this world!

-Stephanie

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Table of Icelandic Geology Terms

á (s) ár (pl), fljót (large river) River
askja Caldera
aur (glacial outwash) Sandur
bergkvika Magma
berg Rock
bjarg (s), björg (pl) Cliffs/Rocks/Crags
borg (s), borgir (pl) Rocky hill
bunga Rounded hill
dalur Valley
díabas Dolerite
eldar (pl) Fires/Eruptions
eldborg (s), eldborgir (pl) Lava ring
eldgjá Lava fissure
fjall (s), fjöll (pl) Mountain
gjall Scoria
hellir Cave
hraun Lava flow
jökull Glacier
móberg Tuff/Hyaloclastite
vatn (s), vötn (pl) Lake
víti (also used for explosive volcanic craters or maars) Hell
völlur (s), vellir (pl) Field/plain

 

A fossilized (petrified) forest in the ground

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Location of Lune River, Tasmania, Australia

Intro: There is a place in Tasmania where stunning fossil remains of an ancient forest can be found by just about anyone. This is Lune River, located near the south tip of the island (~ 2 hours drive south of Hobart). Fossilized tree branches, ferns and beautiful agates are buried within the soft gravel ground, and there are dedicated blocks of the forest where public people can go and find some of these neat specimens. In this blog post I’ll briefly describe how the fossilized forest formed, my venture down there, and how to get (i.e., fossick) for them yourself!

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The forest above the fossilized forest at Lune River – Tasmania, Australia

Science Spiel: A petrified forest (Geology, Mineralogy)

Hidden in the clay-rich, gravely ground of Lune River there is a petrified forest. Petrified is a term used when an organic material is replaced by mineral. In the Jurassic time period, specially 182 Ma (Bromfield, 2004; Bromfield et al., 2007) the area near Lune River was a lush forest covered with tree-ferns and conifer woods. With time this organic plant material was buried by sediment and thus protected from decay by oxygen and biological activity. The sediment was further buried by basaltic to andesitic lava. While buried, groundwater that was volcanic-heated and full of dissolved silica flowed through the sediment and replaced the original organic plant material (i.e. ferns leaves, tree branches, etc.). In some cases this replacement was cell by cell, thus beautifully preserving the more fine structure and detail of the plants.

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Fossilized (petrified) wood from Lune River – Tasmania, Australia

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Petrified wood from Lune River – Tasmania, Australia

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Designated public fossicking sites at Lune River – Tasmania, Australia (from Mineral Resources Tasmania, 2016)

If you know where to look you can you find these rare tree-ferns, as well as agates, leaf impressions in mudstone, and silicified conifer wood! First step is to check the Mineral Resources of Tasmania website http://www.mrt.tas.gov.au/portal/lune-river on fossicking in Lune River. Here there are designated areas the public can go to. I would also suggest stopping by Lunaris Gemstone shop in Lune River. There is a lovely lady named Christine who runs the place, and you can get information exactly where to go, plus check out all the awesome specimens in the shop.

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Display of fossilized fern-trees, wood and others at Lunaris Gemstone, Lune River – Tasmania, Australia

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Shovel used to dig holes and find the buried fossilized wood and tree-ferns at Lune River – Tasmania, Australia

What you need for fossicking is a shovel and spade. The ground is relatively soft and composed of clay and gravel, but can be fairly consolidated so a trick is to look under the roots of fallen over trees, or dig a hole. It is also important, and should be noted, that you must fill up your holes once you are done (although, as in our case, it was beneficial that the previous fossickers didn’t as we found the pre-dug holes easier to work with). The specimens in the ground are quite dirty and hard to tell, but once you get your eye into the more rectangular- and uniform-like shapes of the fossilized wood you can pick out a fair bit.

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Looking for fossilized wood and agate in the gravelly ground at Lune River – Tasmania, Australia

Final Thoughts: While we didn’t manage to find any of the elusive tree-fern, we found a fair bit of agate and fossilized wood; so that leave us with another reason to return I suppose! As a geologist you always have to remember things as they are today were not as they once were. This petrified forest is a nice example of a ecosystem that was quite different to the current eucalyptus forest that occupies the Lune River area of Tasmania today. Thus, it is pretty neat to be able to go out and collect a little piece of the preserved ancient forest for yourself.

-Stephanie

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The forest above the fossilized forest at Lune River – Tasmania, Australia

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Petrified wood from Lune River – Tasmania, Australia

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Red mountains and crescent bays of Freycinet Peninsula, Tasmania

Map, Freycinet Peninsula Circuit, Freycinet, Freycinet Peninsula, Tasmania, Australia, hiking, bushwalking, outline, location, distance

Map of Freycinet Peninsula (Circuit) – Tasmania, Australia (© State of Tasmania)

Intro: Freycinet Peninsula is arguably the most popular tourist destination in Tasmania. Just look on any pamphlet for the island state and you will more than likely find a photo of the stunning (and appropriately named), Wineglass Bay. What makes Freycinet so beautiful can be traced back to the geology and geomorphology of the area. I recently did a multi-day hike along the Peninsula (i.e., the Freycinet Peninsula Circuit), which consists of a counterclockwise circuit, starting from Coles Bay and ending at Mt. Amos. In this post I will share some of the insights in the glowing red mountains and sparkling blue beaches that make this place so alluring.

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Hazard’s Beach (left) and Wineglass Bay (right) from the top of Mt. Graham – Freycinet Peninsula, Tasmania, Australia

Science Spiel: Glowing mountains and wine glass shaped beaches (Geology, Geomorphology)

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Just another wallaby (they are everywhere!) hanging out by an outcrop of red granite at Hazard’s Beach – Freycinet Peninsula, Tasmania, Australia

Freycinet Peninsula is composed of large granite bodies. They are Devonian in age, and are a striking difference to the other main geological units that comprise most of Tasmania (i.e., the young, prominent Jurassic dolerite and the old, deformed Precambrian quartzite). There are two major types of granites, I-type and S-type. They are classified this way in regards to their molten source being either igneous (I) or sedimentary (S). The I-type granites are enriched in sodium and calcium, and have the mineral hornblende. S-type granites are depleted in sodium but enriched in aluminum, they typically have the minerals muscovite, biotite, corundum and garnet. On the Freycinet Peninsula, granites are mostly S-type, and they range from equigranular to porphyritic, with large K-feldspar crystals (Groves, 1967). In fact, the K-feldspar-rich composition of the granites is what gives them their characteristic red appearance, which appears to be amplified when the sunset light hits Mt. Amos and the Hazards mountains. Granites here are also more radioactive than other granites in Australian, due to significant amount of U and Th. This isn’t, however, a contributing factor to the famous red glow at sunset!

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Prominentc red glow of the Hazards and Mt. Amos granite mountains at sunset at Freycinet National Park – Tasmania, Australia

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Cartoon showing how the Freycinet granites formed, and then got uplifted and eroded (Parks Tasmania, 2016)

These granites have curved, domal surfaces which is a characteristic feature of granites called “onion skin” weathering (e.g., sugarloaf in Rio de Janeiro). This is caused by exfoliation from elastic expansion and contraction of the rock, which causes outer slabs “skin” of the rock to fall off, which exposes fresher surfaces that haven’t been discoloured yet due to weathering processes. Pre-existing joints and faults also get weathered out more easily, which aids in making and defining the rounded boulders.

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Brilliant blue water on an granite beach near Cooks Beach – Freycinet, Tasmania

Beside the rocks, the other remarkable landscape of Freycinet is the white sand, blue water, crescent-shaped beaches. Some of the most popular are Hazard’s Bay and Wineglass Bay. Bays are semi-enclosed bodies of water, commonly in a crescent shape (hence the characteristic “wineglass” shape), with calmer water than the surrounding ocean. This is due to headlands on either side of the Bay which reduces wind and blocks and refracts waves into the bay. The beautiful white sand that composes the beaches can also be attributed to the granite rocks, as the most of the quartz sand grains likely came from erosion of the quartz-rich granite bodies.

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The famous Wineglass-shaped Wineglass Bay of Freycinet Peninsula (view from the top of Mt. Freycinet) – Tasmania, Australia

Final Thoughts: While the mountains at Freycinet aren’t as rugged as those in the southwest of Tasmania, the domal-shaped granites definitely hold their own magical allure. It isn’t a surprise why Freycinet is regarded as one of the must-see places in Tasmania. Freycinet National Park is easily accessible driving from Hobart, with only a short hike to the lookout of Wineglass Bay. I, however, also highly recommend the Freycinet Peninsula Circuit 3-day hike. Both are great ways to experience (and hopefully appreciate) the granite mountains and crescent-shaped beaches that define this place!

-Stephanie

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Hiking group photo, from the top of Mt. Freycinet, with Wineglass Bay in background – Freycinet, Tasmania

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View (looking south) of Schouten Island from the top of Mt. Freycinet – Tasmania, Australia

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Wineglass Bay, looking toward Mt. Amos – Freycinet Peninsula, Tasmania, Australia

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Mapping with drones

Intro: An exciting part of being a PhD student is being surrounded by new ideas and technology that pushes forward your field of study. On an undergraduate geology field trip to Freycinet National Park, Tasmania, I was part of a team in conjunction with our new TMVC hub (i.e. ARC Industrial Transformation Research Hub, Transforming the Mining Value Chain) at the University of Tasmania, to teach the undergraduate students geological mapping. What was different about this was that we integrated high-resolution photographs taken from an aerial drone with a mapping technique used in mineral exploration and ore deposit studies. Are exercise took place on a beautiful outcrop near Bluestone Bay, Freycinet Peninsula, Tasmania, Australia.

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An aerial done (UAV) with a student mapping in the background – Freycinet Peninsula, Tasmania, Australia

Science Spiel: Mapping and drones

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First published geological map, by William Smith in 1815

Geology is very much an observational-based science. While many branches of the science focus on observation on a microscopic scale, it is critical to first understand what the bigger picture is. The best way to record these observations is by creating a geological map of the rocks you are interested in. In fact, it was just the 200th anniversary of the first ever geological map by William Smith in 1815. The technique of geological mapping hasn’t changed a whole lot since then, but new technologies like Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs; i.e. drones) are being used to create the most detailed 3-D photos of the outcrops ever.

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Undergraduate students observing the UAV (i.e. drone) in action.

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Dr. Roach fly a UAV to capture a 3-D photograph of the outcrop

On a recent field trip for the 2nd year geology undergraduate students, we went to Freycinet Peninsula, on the east coast of Tasmania, to teach them about the rocks that make up the peninsula, and how to do geological mapping. One of the professors in the Geology department at the University of Tasmania, Dr. Michael Roach, has been very active with capturing 3-D spatially referenced geological outcrops. The main purpose is to have a representation of key geological outcrops for teaching to students (check out www.AusGeol.org for a virtual library of Australia’s geology). The UAV was flown over the area ahead of time so we had the high-resolution maps ready to deploy.

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High-resolution photograph, obtained from a drone (UAV), for the base layer of geological map

Bridging the Old with the New

A small area was chosen for detailed mapping, with a high-resolution photograph as a base layer. Instead of just mapping the usual rock units (lithotypes) and structures (…which are beautiful, note the fault offsetting the pink dyke in the centre of the photo…), we also mapped hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. This is very important when it comes to mineral exploration, as the hydrothermal fluids that create veins and alter rocks over a wide area are usually associated with (or are the same) hydrothermal fluids that cause mineralization and ore deposition (i.e. gold, copper). A colour-coated mapping style was used, known as “Anaconda” mapping, which basically is mapping of different alteration assemblages (Einaudi, 1997).

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Example legend for mapping hydrothermal veins and alteration

That is, if a hydrothermal fluid passed through or nearby a rock, the original minerals will because altered with depletion or addition of different elements. These are visible in the rocks, as when you look at primary minerals their properties (i.e. colour, hardness, appearance, etc.), differ from what they originally were.

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Teaching alteration mapping at Freycinet, Tasmania, Australia

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A geology student mapping on the outcrop at Freycinet Peninsula, Tasmania, Australia

Final Thoughts: For the interest of future students doing this exercise I shouldn’t reveal the final geological map, but there were some good-looking maps by the students and lots of enthusiasm to go around (a good chunk coming from us, the demonstrators…). The aid of a high-resolution base layer makes mapping prominent geological features fantastic, and it allows you to keep thinking about the big picture while you take your hand lens, hammer and notebook out to understand the details. Mapping alteration and veins systematically in the field allows you to start to see the more prospective areas on the map while you are still on the ground, and have a better understanding of the prospective areas associated with hydrothermal fluid flow. Overall it was a successful exercise in integrating an old technique with new technology, something that will no doubt be used going forward!

-Stephanie

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An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (i.e. UAV) flying over a geological outcrop and taking 3-D spatially referenced photos

What is the Tessellated Pavement

Tasmania, Australia, Travel, Geology, Adventure, Blog, Rocks, Tessellated Pavement, Joints, How did it form, formation, what is, explore, outdoors, Tasman Peninsula, Eaglehawk Neck, Photography, Tassie, nature, science, geoscience, cool rock formations, salt water, ocean, sea, shore, coast, location, mapIntro: Sometimes it is hard to believe certain rock formations are natural… and this is definitely the case with a place in Tasmania called the Tessellated Pavement. It is named this due to the tessellated (i.e. tiled-like) appearance of the rocks along the water. This little tourist spot is near Eaglehawk Neck, on the way to the famous Tasman Peninsula, and only about an hour drive from Hobart. Not only is the Tessellated Pavement a spectacular sight (and photographer’s dream), but it also is a unique geological phenomenon…

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Overview of the Tessellated Pavement at Eaglehawk Neck – Tasmania, Australia

 

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Myself (for scale) at the Tessellated Pavement at Eaglehawk Neck – Tasmania, Australia

Science Spiel: Cracks and salt (Geology, Geomorphology)

The rock that comprises the Tessellated Pavement is mostly siltstone that formed in the Permian (about 300 million years ago), by sediments that accumulated on a relatively low-lying area. The sediments eventually got compacted and lithified to form the solid siltstone. Local stresses at the Earth’s surface then caused the siltstone to crack and fracture in certain directions, this is called jointing.  There are three mains sets of joints; ENE, NNW, and NNE. The fact that they are mutually cross-cutting without off-set each other is a key observation that tells you the joints formed at the same time.The way they criss-cross each other is what creates the tiled-like appearance.

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Joints of the Tessellated Pavement at Eaglehawk Neck – Tasmania, Australia

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Joints of the Tessellated Pavement at Eaglehawk Neck – Tasmania, Australia

But wait, the story doesn’t end there… time and water also played (and continue to play) a role in creating this site.

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Tessellated Pavement at Eaglehawk Neck – Tasmania, Australia

The rocks are currently on an intertidal seaward platform, and thus years and years of erosion (i.e. since sea levels stabilised in the area ~6000 year ago), has exaggerated the tessellation appearance (Leaman, 2001). The constant action of the salt water splashing over and partly covering the rocks with changing tides has lead to the accumulation and percolation salt water on the rocks, particularly within the joint. As the water gets evaporated by the sun, salt crystals forms and as they grow they exert pressure on the rocks causing rocks and joints to flake away and be more susceptible to erosion.

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Cartoon of how salt crystals enhance erosion and the appearance of the Tessellated Pavement (modified from Parks Tasmania, 2016)

The salt crystallization mostly occurs in the joints, however, water that pools on the top of the rocks furthest away from the ocean dries the fastest and salt crystallization is more intense on the rock surface there, causing the depressed, or “pan-like” tiles.

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“Pan-like” tiles of the Tessellated Pavement at Eaglehawk Neck – Tasmania, Australia

The opposite occurs for rocks closer to the water, and therefore only the joint really are visibly depressed, creating the “loaf-like” tiles (Banks et al., 1986; Leeman, 2001).

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“Loaf-like” tiles of the Tessellated Pavement at Eaglehawk Neck – Tasmania, Australia

Final Thoughts: The Tessellated Pavement is a stunning sight that sparks curiosity of visitors. The reason I checked it out is that actually a friend of mine asked me what it was, as it looked man-made to her! Jointing in rocks is not an uncommon thing, but the special circumstances with salt crystal formations and increased erosion really enhanced this pattern. I would highly recommend stopping by this neat place on the way to the Tasman Peninsula, I hope it sparks your curiosity about rocks as well!

-Stephanie

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Curious (?) about the Tessellated Pavement at Eaglehawk Neck – Tasmania, Australia

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Tessellated Pavement at Eaglehawk Neck – Tasmania, Australia

Tasmania, Australia, Travel, Geology, Adventure, Blog, Rocks, Tessellated Pavement, Joints, How did it form, formation, what is, explore, outdoors, Tasman Peninsula, Eaglehawk Neck, Photography, Tassie, nature, science, geoscience, cool rock formations, salt water, ocean, sea, shore, coast

Tessellated Pavement at Eaglehawk Neck – Tasmania, Australia

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